The contents of 10000 litre vessel runs away at the boiling point, and a considerable (1000 litres) amount of material was ejected
The process outline...and errors
- Vessel charged with a small amount of solvent and amine (amine is just to mop up HCl, so an exothermic reaction is expected
- About 5000 litres of make-up solvent should have been added - but this step was omitted
- The mixture was warmed to 55°C, where the substrate was added
- Once the substrate was all in, the vessel was set to heat slowly to reflux
At around 80°C, the exothermic reaction set in, cooling was poor, due to the lack of solvent, the reaction was fast due to the vastly increased concentration, and the mixture uncontrollably boiled and left the vessel.
It later transpired that the vessel was fitted with a load cell, but its use was not required...